Simple and bold: Shen Zhou, leader of “Wu Men School of Painting”
In the development history of literati painting, Shen Zhou, one of the “Four Schools of Ming Dynasty”, is a decisive figure.Shen Zhou (1427~1509), styled Qinan, also known by his literary names Shitian and Baishi Weng, was born in Changzhou (now Suzhou, Jiangsu province).The founder of the Ming Dynasty “Wumen painting School”, famous for landscape, flowers and birds, is not only the main force of wumen painting school, but also the flagship painter of Ming dynasty literati painting.Shen Zhou lived in seclusion in Wumen for generations. His grandfather, Shen Cheng, was a landscape painter and expert in appreciation. He was a good friend of the painter Wang Meng and possessed wang Meng’s masterpieces.Her father, Shen Hengji, was also a student of Du Qiong.At the age of 15, he showed his literary talent and profound knowledge, but did not take the imperial examination. He built a bamboo house, wrote poems and painted pictures, and spent a leisurely and comfortable life, rich in collecting and making friends.Shen Zhou’s landscape paintings for Zhu Qi in the Ming Dynasty are collected in Zhejiang Provincial Museum. They can be traced back to Dong Yuan and Juran in the five dynasties, and they have studied the four Masters of the Yuan Dynasty. They have studied Huang Gongwang, Wang Meng, Ni Zan and Wu Zhen, especially Wang Meng and Huang Gongwang.His early work, Mountain Lu Gao Tu (Chenghua Ding Hai), 41 years old, was clearly written by Wang Meng.After middle age, began to change, 53 years old (Gengzi chenghua) painting “Huqiu send visitors” has been from complex to simple, but chapping method is still cun niumao.By the time of yibi year (1485), Shen Zhou was already 58 years old.The cun of Huang Gongwang, the dot of Wang Meng, the simplicity of Ni Yunlin, and the embellish of Wu Zhen were all skillfully absorbed by him, thus forming the painting style of rough brush landscape, which became a grid alone.Shen Zhou’s rough brush landscape, brush rough jian, ink huarun, bold and unrestrained, emphasizing calligraphy brush, the pursuit of literati painting interest.Coarse brush landscape fine works have the Shanghai Museum collection “Grass temple map”, Beijing Palace Museum collection “Pastoral map” “Cangzhou interest map”, Zhejiang museum collection “for Zhu Qi landscape map” and so on.Shen Zhou’s fine brush landscape paintings are rare in the world, such as Pine Slope Pingyuan in Guangzhou Art Museum, Garden Tree Resurrection in Wuxi Museum, And Zhi Crane in Taipei Palace Museum.The Resurrection of Garden Trees by Shen Zhou in the Ming Dynasty is hidden in the wuxi City Museum. Most of the characters are subtle and neat because they are works of celebrating longevity and fenghe.There are very few green landscape paintings by Shen and Zhou, only a few of which are in the collection of Shanghai Museum and Tianjin Art Museum.There are some antique works by Shen Zhou in Tianjin Art Museum, which are also wonderful.For example, the capital Museum collection of “imitation Of Ni Yunlin landscape”, completely Ni Yunlin thirst for pen, composition is minimalist, scattered, without a point of dust, indeed as the first title of the “Shida Yifin”.In the Ming Dynasty, Shen Zhou’s “Imitation of Ni Yunlin’s landscape” was collected in the Capital Museum and the Forbidden City in Beijing. It was painted in ding Wei’s year of Chenghua (1487). At this time, Shen Zhou was already 60 years old, but it clearly showed shen Zhou’s rough brush strokes of landscape.Huang Gongwang’s “Dwelling in fuchun Mountain” was an old collection of Shen and Zhou, but it was lost because it was lent out.In addition to landscape painting, Shen Zhou also worked on flowers and birds, which had a great influence on later painters wen Zhengming, Tang Yin and Chen Chun.Shen Zhou’s flower-and-bird paintings can be divided into three categories: one is the small freehand brushwork of ink, such as the Flower and Flower Painting in Shanghai Museum and the Peony painting in Beijing Palace Museum.There are also boneless colors in the Collection of the Palace Museum in Beijing, such as the Matsusite Hibiscus by the University of Michigan Art Museum in the United States and the Sleeping Tour Atlas by the Palace Museum in Beijing.Some works, such as the Three Pines in the Nanjing Museum collection, clearly belong to the sketchbook category.Shen Zhou’s flower-and-bird paintings mainly came from his family. His father, Shen Hengji, was adept at painting flowers and plants, but few of them remain.Shen Zhou had made two father flowers poems, one of which is “the ancestors painting Xuan” : “ancestors handwritten appropriate male grass, green yellow reef as people.”Shen Zhou himself also paint day lilies, 40 years old for “day lilies”, its inscription cloud “my mother love day lilies, hall before thousands of flowers.”Anhui Museum has a picture of Chun Xuan by Shen Zhou for reference.The flower and bird paintings of Shen Zhou in Ming Dynasty, which were collected in Anhui Provincial Museum, were not only influenced by his family, but also influenced by buddhist painting in southern Song Dynasty.Beijing Palace Museum in possession of Fachang “ink sketch map” a volume, after Shen Zhou’s inscriptions “near see a volume of Mu Xi in pao Nunnery Wu…Do not apply color, arbitrary splash-ink, like if living.”In calligraphy, Shen Zhou also had deep attainments.After an early learning Zhao Meng ð « ¯ and “song four”, after the middle-aged teacher huang tingjian, love huang tingjian characters, especially pleased with LangHao flick books, sharp lines stretch, tightening in the palace and four dimensional open, deep of huang tingjian runs smooth and escapement, long big si, ting jin queer, opening and closing, and the pale landscape painting forceful style is very thickShen was aesthetically fond of books that were thin and hard. He used to collect two books by Lin, a famous Song dynasty poet and hermit, and inscribed a poem that read, “I love Books that are thin and hard.”According to the implied Meaning of Ming Dumu, Shen Zhou had collected four pieces of Huang Tingjian’s calligraphy, which provided a very good condition for him to copy Huang Tingjian’s calligraphy.In fact, not only Shen Zhou liked Huang Tingjian’s calligraphy, his disciple Wen Zhengming also left a lot of Huang Tingjian style calligraphy in large characters.Shen Zhou was obsessed with luteum after middle age, and he was one of the few people who could inherit the charm of Huang Tingjian’s calligraphy.Handed down ink has “fallen flower poem volume” “hua must shu volume”.Shen Zhou’s paintings became so popular that many people tried to imitate and fake them at that time.Zhu Zhishan once carried: “piece broussonetia toward out, noon has seen a copy, and soon there are everywhere, where more than ten of this.”Wang Griddle also said, “Mr. Wang is so sincere that he is willing to sell something that is easy to get.It can be seen that Shen Zhou is a good man, but also caused his false paintings repeatedly.At present, a small number of Shen Zhou’s paintings in domestic and foreign collections are also controversial forgeries.In fact, in recent years, the vast majority of Shen Zhou’s paintings on the auction field are rough brush landscape paintings, the authenticity is relatively easy to distinguish, Shen Zhou’s rough brush landscape paintings, first cuning and then point, superb brushwork, especially the dry ink is proper, calligraphy is vigorous and vertical, the pen has thousands of jun, counterfeiters are difficult to imitate.In Ming Dynasty, Shen Zhou’s landscape painting “Love in tiger Hills” is stored in wuxi City Museum. Although it can be summarized as “bold and unrestrained”, it is a lifetime of brush and ink cultivation. The more concise the brush and ink is, the more you can see the skill of the painter.